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To read or write data from the database, you need an instance of
By default, read and write access to your database is restricted so only authenticated users can read or write data. To get started without setting up Firebase Authentication, you can configure your rules for public access. This does make your database open to anyone, even people not using your app, so be sure to restrict your database again when you set up authentication.
push() method to append data to a list in multiuser applications.
push() method generates a unique key every time a new child is added to
the specified Firebase reference. By using these auto-generated keys for each
new element in the list, several clients can add children to the same location
at the same time without write conflicts. The unique key generated by
is based on a timestamp, so list items are automatically ordered
You can use the reference to the new data returned by the
push() method to get
the value of the child's auto-generated key or set data for the child. The
.key property of a
push() reference contains the auto-generated key.
You can use these auto-generated keys to simplify flattening your data structure. For more information, see the data fan-out example.
push() could be used to add a new post to a list of posts
in a social application:
Child events are triggered in response to specific operations that happen to
the children of a node from an operation such as a new child added through the
push() method or a child being updated through the
|Retrieve lists of items or listen for additions to a list of items. This event is triggered once for each existing child and then again every time a new child is added to the specified path. The listener is passed a snapshot containing the new child's data.|
|Listen for changes to the items in a list. This event is triggered any time a child node is modified. This includes any modifications to descendants of the child node. The snapshot passed to the event listener contains the updated data for the child.|
|Listen for items being removed from a list. This event is triggered when an immediate child is removed.The snapshot passed to the callback block contains the data for the removed child.|
|Listen for changes to the order of items in an ordered list. onChildMoved events always follow the onChildChanged event that caused the item's order to change (based on your current order-by method).|
Each of these together can be useful for listening to changes to a specific node in a database. For example, a social blogging app might use these methods together to monitor activity in the comments of a post, as shown below:
While listening for child events is the recommended way to read lists of data, there are situations listening for value events on a list reference is useful.
value listener to a list of data will return the
entire list of data as a single snapshot which you can then loop over to
access individual children.
Even when there is only a single match for the query, the snapshot is still a list; it just contains a single item. To access the item, you need to loop over the result:
This pattern can be useful when you want to fetch all children of a list in a single operation, rather than listening for additional child added events.
You can use the
Query class to retrieve data sorted by
key, by value, or by value of a child. You can also filter
the sorted result to a specific number of results or a range of keys or
Note: Filtering and sorting can be expensive, especially when done on the
client. If your app uses queries, define the
.indexOn rule to index those
keys on the server and improve query performance as described in
Indexing Your Data.
To retrieve sorted data, start by specifying one of the order-by methods to determine how results are ordered:
|Order results by the value of a specified child key or nested child path.|
|Order results by child keys.|
|Order results by child values.|
You can only use one order-by method at a time. Calling an order-by method multiple times in the same query throws an error.
The following example demonstrates how you could retrieve a list of a user's top posts sorted by their star count:
This defines a query that when combined with a child listener synchronizes the client with the user's posts from the path in the database based on their user ID, ordered by the number of stars each post has received. This technique of using IDs as index keys is called data fan out, you can read more about it in Structure Your Database.
The call to the
orderByChild() method specifies the child key to order the
results by. In this case, posts are sorted by the value of their
"starCount" child. Queries can also be ordered by nested
children, in case you have data that looks like this:
In this case, we can order our list elements by values nested under the
metrics key by specifying the relative path to the nested child in our
For more information on how other data types are ordered, see How query data is ordered.
To filter data, you can combine any of the limit or range methods with an order-by method when constructing a query.
|Sets the maximum number of items to return from the beginning of the ordered list of results.|
|Sets the maximum number of items to return from the end of the ordered list of results.|
|Return items greater than or equal to the specified key or value, depending on the order-by method chosen.|
|Return items greater than the specified key or value depending on the order-by method chosen.|
|Return items less than or equal to the specified key or value, depending on the order-by method chosen.|
|Return items less than the specified key or value depending on the order-by method chosen.|
|Return items equal to the specified key or value, depending on the order-by method chosen.|
Unlike the order-by methods, you can combine multiple limit or range functions.
For example, you can combine the
endAt() methods to limit
the results to a specified range of values.
You can use the
limitToLast() methods to set a
maximum number of children to be synced for a given event. For example, if
limitToFirst() to set a limit of 100, you initially only receive up
onChildAdded events. If you have fewer than 100 items stored in your
Firebase database, a
onChildAdded event fires for each item.
As items change, you receive
onChildAdded events for items that enter the
onChildRemoved events for items that drop out of it so that
the total number stays at 100.
The following example demonstrates how example blogging app defines a query to retrieve a list of the 100 most recent posts by all users:
This example only defines a query, to actually synchronize data it needs to have an attached listener.
You can use
equalTo() to choose arbitrary starting, ending, and equivalence points for
queries. This can be useful for paginating data or finding items with children
that have a specific value.
This section explains how data is sorted by each of the order-by methods in the
orderByChild(), data that contains the specified child key is
ordered as follows:
- Children with a value for the specified child key come first.null
- Children with a value of for the specified child key come next. If multiple children have a value offalse, they are sorted lexicographically by key.false
- Children with a value of for the specified child key come next. If multiple children have a value oftrue, they are sorted lexicographically by key.true
- Children with a numeric value come next, sorted in ascending order. If multiple children have the same numerical value for the specified child node, they are sorted by key.
- Strings come after numbers and are sorted lexicographically in ascending order. If multiple children have the same value for the specified child node, they are ordered lexicographically by key.
- Objects come last and are sorted lexicographically by key in ascending order.
orderByKey() to sort your data, data is returned in ascending order
- Children with a key that can be parsed as a 32-bit integer come first, sorted in ascending order.
- Children with a string value as their key come next, sorted lexicographically in ascending order.
orderByValue(), children are ordered by their value. The ordering
criteria are the same as in
orderByChild(), except the value of the node is
used instead of the value of a specified child key.
Callbacks are removed by calling the
off() method on your
Firebase database reference.
You can remove a single listener by passing it as a parameter to
off() on the location with no arguments removes all listeners at that
off() on a parent listener does not
automatically remove listeners registered on its child nodes;
off() must also be called on any child listeners
to remove the callback.